PECULIARITIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOBACCO AND TABLE INDUSTRY ON THE TERRITORY OF THE MODERN SUMCHINA AT THE BORDER OF THE XIX – XX CENTURIES
Keywords:agriculture, history, Sumy region, tobacco industry, manufactory, factory, tobacco
The article is devoted to the analysis of the tobacco and shag industry, which developed on the territory of the modern Sumy region in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The authors draw attention to the peculiarities of the introduction of clear zoning in Ukraine on the cultivation of crops in general and tobacco in particular. It was also noted that the territory of Sumy region, as well as the whole north of Ukraine did not have powerful enterprises at that time, because the vast majority of tobacco was grown in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. In the course of the research, some pages of the development of tobacco enterprises in the territory of modern Sumy region were described. In particular, the launch of the first industrial enterprise on the Left Bank in Okhtyrka, which provided processing of tobacco products and the activities of a special office to provide the population with tobacco seeds in Romny.
In addition, the article identifies periods with different rates of development of the tobacco and shag industry in the Ukrainian lands: growth (1861-1885), crisis and decline (1885-1900), active monopolization (1911-1914), having received a significant boost in development as a result of major reforms in the 1860s, the tobacco and shag industry was actively growing until 1885. After that, the Ukrainian lands are gradually reducing the area under tobacco and its gross harvest. The result was a decrease in the early twentieth century. the number of enterprises, which was accelerated by the reduction of markets for manufactured products and the introduction of the excise charter, according to which a small number were engaged in the purchase of leaf tobacco. Then, as a result of active monopolization of the domestic economy in the early twentieth century. the tobacco and shag industry, while reducing the number of enterprises due to their consolidation, was characterized by an increase in the number of manufactured products and the gradual introduction of mechanization into the production process.