COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PENSION INSURANCE SYSTEM IN UKRAINE AND IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
In modern conditions, most states are actively reforming their national pension systems. An analysis of the peculiarities and outcomes of the functioning of national pension systems is important for determining the factors of influence.
The choice of pension systems of countries for analysis (Germany, France, Estonia, Poland, Sweden and Ukraine) is due to their different models and different starting conditions for reform. In addition, the selected pension systems of countries such as Estonia are of additional interest for analysis, due to the fact that they are post-Soviet states, therefore, the starting conditions for the modernization of pension systems in these countries were the same and reforms began almost simultaneously.
The modern pension system is a complex organism that combines economic and legal institutions that are designed to meet the interests of various layers of society. The level of pension insurance is characterized by a number of statistical indicators. The article analyzes four factors: 1) insurance premiums - the amount of deductions to the state pension fund; 2) the ratio of the average pension to the average wage; 3) retirement age; 4) the level of average pension and subsistence level.
According to the results of the analysis of key indicators of pension insurance systems of the selected foreign countries and Ukraine, the differences between the national pension systems, which are manifested in the difference between the size of pension contributions, the average pension, etc., are established.
As an example of the experience of foreign countries, there are ways to improve the system of pension insurance in Ukraine, namely: reducing the level of the shadow economy, increasing the share of wage deductions on the legislative level, which is aimed at forming a pension under the accumulation system and can be achieved through increased deductions as employers, either by workers, or by reducing the proportion of deductions, which is aimed at forming a pension on a distributive basis.
Thus, when analyzing various pension insurance systems, the pension insurance system of the Federal Republic of Germany, which has the highest average pension and the lowest retirement age, is more perfect and effective.