• Volodymyr Dzhyndzhoian


international competitiveness, tourism, donor country, recipient country, educational tourism, human resources movement


The article considers typical representatives of donor countries, including Ukraine, and recipient countries, which include Germany and Poland, which operate in the market of educational services. The main directions of human resources potential realization are highlighted, among which: increase of migration flows, creation of new jobs, growth of employment, international competitiveness and international mobility of students. The dependence of the foreign students' numbers dynamics on the growth of real GDP is studied. The growth in the number of foreign students in Poland over the past seven years is proportional to the growth of real gross domestic product. In Germany, the picture is similar, but the growth of real gross domestic product is delayed by one year. Ukraine demonstrates a significant rate of export of educational tourists, which in turn is quite negative for the international competitiveness of the economy. The nature and trends of international student mobility are analyzed. Against the global background, after 2018 there is a gradual decrease in the number of international mobile students studying in Ukraine. At the same time, the number of international mobile students studying in foreign countries is constantly growing. The main advantages, disadvantages, opportunities and threats facing donor and recipient countries have been identified. The advantages of the recipient countries are to increase the size of the economy, reduce the cost of doing business by reducing the average wage, increase innovation and intellectual potential, the ability to use labor without the obligation to provide pension services. The shortcomings are based on the additional costs of neutralizing increasing social tensions and criminalization (mainly in the case of illegal migration), the costs of combating illegal migration. Opportunities are focused on increasing labor resources in the economy, increasing production, domestic market (by increasing incomes), smoothing structural imbalances in the labor market, saving on training (in the case of skilled workers). The biggest threats are the increase in the budget burden due to "strong" and "local" unemployment traps, the growth of the shadow sector of the economy and rising social tensions. It was found that educational tourism for Ukraine is more negative than positive. The main disadvantages are the outflow of qualified personnel, resulting in technological backwardness, declining GDP, possible inflation in the event of a large advantage in external transfers. This poses a number of threats to Ukraine: a reduction in the number of labor resources in the long run, a reduction in the amount of tax and other revenues to the state budget as a result of the deficit.