ESSENCE AND CLASSIFICATION OF INVESTMENTS AS A FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CATEGORY
Keywords:investments, capital investments, classification feature, financial and economic category, investing
Investments are a complex category that requires proper interpretation and clear classification, taking into account the characteristics and requirements of the time. The importance of applying a scientific approach to the identification of classification features of the studied concept allows to increase the validity of the choice and ensure high efficiency of investment, which directly affects the development of not only the economy but also other spheres of life. In the article the author studies the views of leading economists and features of the legislative interpretation of the studied concept. Considering the main approaches to the definition of investment, we conclude that this concept is quite multifaceted, specific to different countries based on the level of development, socio-cultural characteristics and manifests itself as a financial and economic category. It was found that the contradictions are due to the interpretation of the concept of «investment» from different positions, according to each area of their study. Therefore, it is proposed to consider this category in different aspects (financial, economic, macroeconomic, technical, industrial, etc.), which will emphasize the importance of certain aspects in certain areas in the formation of the concept of «investment», without narrowing its essence. Based on the considered definitions of the essential characteristics of investment, the author's vision of the interpretation of the «investment» concept is proposed. The multifaceted interpretation of the concept of "investment" gives rise to various approaches to the classification of of this financial and economic category types, which prompted the author to systematize scientific approaches and form a generalized classification of investment types by basic classification criteria. A new type of investment has been proposed – land leasing investments, which are relevant for strengthening the country's defense capabilities and restoring military strength, assistance and protection of the population, can be used as a result of force majeure, including war. The use of a systematic classification will allow a more detailed approach to the study of the nature of investment processes that occur at all levels of economic entities' economic activity. The practical aspect of the generalized and proposed classification of investment types can be further used in statistical research and analysis of the investment market.