COMPUTER METAPHOR AS ONE OF THE LEADING MECHANISMS OF SEMANTIC DERIVATION IN MODERN ENGLISH
The article depicts the meaning and the essence of the concepts «metaphor» and «computer science metaphor». The process of metaphorization is seen as transformation of the original word’s meaning by rethinking according to similarity and analogy. Computer science metaphor is regarded as a linguistic and cognitive phenomenon and the main source of derivation of the new computer vocabulary in modern English. Widespread use of computer science metaphors is caused by the desire to understand the new concept by transferring fi gurative schemes from one conceptual sphere to another through the prism of existing experience. The question of genesis of computer science metaphor is presented. The computer science metaphor is shaped by analogies between intellectual, cognitive activity of a person and computer functions. Transformation of the initial value occurs mainly by external or functional similarity. The structural and semantic aspects are analyzed. Computer science metaphor as one of the leading mechanisms of semantic derivation has certain features: visibility, ability to create vivid associations, which ensures thorough assimilation of information, the ability to duplicate foreign language equivalents, facilitating perception. The peculiarities of functioning of a computer metaphor are considered in the article. The place of computer metaphor in modern English is determined. The article analyzes different «source spheres» (according to J. Lacoff – this concept denotes the commonly
used vocabulary of a unit which, as a result of metaphorization, acquires a new specifi c meaning and becomes a «target sphere»). The article defi nes and analyzes the following conceptual groups («source spheres»): military profession, fauna, health care, roads, transport, tools, food, books, mythical, biblical characters, etc.