• Andrii Boiar
Keywords: budgetary relations, budget, levels, model, globalization


In the article we further develop the concept of ‘budgetary relations’ taking into account the impact of globalization and international economic integration processes. Having analyzed the features and modern context of budgetary relations we allocate five levels of budgetary relations: 1) sub-micro-regional; 2) sub-meso-regional; 3) sub-macro-regional; 4) sub-mega-regional and 5) sub-meta-regional. At each level, new groups of entities are involved in the budget process, and this does not mean the exclusion from the budget process of subjects of lower levels, although this is possible.
The basis of this budgetary relations “pyramid” consists of the financial resources of individuals and legal entities. Budgetary relations of sub-macro-economic level emerge among individuals and legal entities and the local budgets of the lower level administrative-nomenclature units (villages, settlements, cities of district subordination, districts in Ukraine, regions NUTS-3 in the EU, etc.).
Budgetary relations evolve to the sub-meso-regional level because of the appearance among the ‘players’ of the cities of regional and special subordination and administrative regions (in Ukraine) or the regions NUTS-2 (in the EU), etc. The reasons for asserting the existence of sub-macro-regional and sub-mega-regional levels of budget relations arise when state and interstate integration groups appear among the ‘players’.
At the sub-meta-regional level, there are new participants – the global international organizations and their authorities that not only have a certain influence on the flow of budget processes at lower levels, but become direct participants themselves in budgetary relations, providing financial assistance to lower-level ‘players’ or replenishing their financial resources with the help of reverse flows of capital.
It should be also noted that the hierarchical sequence of the budgetary relations levels does not mean the historical (chronological) sequence of their origin. The evolution of budgetary relations began within a sub-macro-regional level, with the subsequent movement “down” and “upward”, since the budget institution itself appeared as a national (state) institute.