DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR OF LABOR POTENTIAL FORMATION IN UKRAINE
The article is devoted to the generalization of the main factors that determine the features of the functioning and use of labor potential of the country. The author, adhering to the principles of a comprehensive and systematic approach to determining labor potential, understands it as an integrated set of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of persons capable of providing labor services.
The study of theoretical approaches to the definition of labor potential has shown that they can be grouped by content into resource-demographic, functional and system-social (effective). The study paid special attention to the resulting indicators of the effectiveness of the use of labor potential in the economic development of the economy. The classification of approaches to the essential understanding of the categorical apparatus of the theory of labor potential allowed the author to substantiate the expediency of identifying the main groups of factors influencing its development, among which special attention is paid to the demographic factor.
Attention is drawn to the narrowing of the demographic base of reproduction of labor potential, which threatens the socio-economic progress and social stability of the country. It is noted that the crisis demographic processes lead to real and potential large-scale losses of labor potential and, as a consequence – the deformation of its gender and age structure. In turn, this determines the likelihood of a deficit of vital potential of the population for the period of employment in the future, a significant deterioration in the quality characteristics of labor potential.
The estimation of dynamics of demographic indicators of development of labor potential of Ukraine, average life expectancy at birth in Ukraine and the countries of Europe, and also dynamics of age structure of the population of Ukraine is given. It was found that the main challenges caused by aging in our country are related to the functioning of the labor market, narrowing of public finance sources, additional burden on health care and social protection systems.