THE CONSTRUCTING A SCIENTIFIC BIOGRAPHY BY MATERIALS OF ARCHIVAL INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF MYKOLA MAKARENKO, 1877–1938
The article is devoted to the study of little-known pages of scientific biography of the scientist-encyclopedist, archaeologist, art historian, one of the organizers of museum affairs in Ukraine M.O. Makarenko (1877–1938). Shot in 1938 on charges of counter-revolutionary activity, the scientist left numerous scientific publications, reports on research on archaeological and architectural monuments, maps, diagrams, drawings, manuscripts, correspondence with scientific and state institutions, as well as private ones. However, because of the label “enemy of the people”, moving from place to place, exile, his archive was not preserved, and scientific work has not been investigated for a long time, or used casually, without reference to the original source.
M.O. Makarenko worked in many regions of the Russian Empire. After returning home to Ukraine, he studied archaeological monuments of various cultures – from Neolith to Cossack era; inspected ancient temples and estates from the times of Kievan Rus; participated in creation of memorial institutions and museums; studied old books and art of book creating. In 1930s he opposed destruction of St. Sophia Cathedral and St. Michael’s Golden-domed Cathedral.
Throughout his life, the scientist has repeatedly worked in Sumy region, in particular in Romny region – a small homeland. On the basis of the documents stored in the funds of State archive of Sumy region, the main directions of M.O. Makarenko’s activity in the region during the 20s of the twentieth century are traced.
Among the priorities of the scientist a special place was occupied by archaeological research, mostly Slavic memorials. On the basis of many years of research, generalized results of which are highlighted in scientific publications, M.O. Makarenko outlined a separate culture that is now known as Romny archeological culture.
The scientist paid great attention to creation of Romny District Museum. Thanks to his efforts new collections of archaeological and artistic departments were replenished; a library and a photographic laboratory were created; lectures and excursions were held. M.O. Makarenko also took care of financing of the institution. Due to fruitful cooperation with famous scientist, Romny Museum has become a focal point for memorial-protecting activity in the region, and its director M.M. Semenchyk – a follower in research, preservation and popularization of the historical past of Romny region.