ORAL HISTORICAL TESTIMONY AND MEMORIES AS A SOURCE FOR THE STUDY OF THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN WAR: METHODOLOGICAL AND LEGAL BASIS
Keywords:oral history, Russian-Ukrainian war, respondent, interviewer, transcription
The paper attempts to summarize the experience gained in oral history research and interviews, which are applied to certain categories of respondents, to determine the place of oral history testimonies and memories as sources for the study of the Russian-Ukrainian war, and to outline certain legal aspects regarding the processing of interview results.
Oral history methodology is much more developed abroad than in Ukraine. Acquisitions in the field of oral history must be actively used when acquiring practical skills in this direction. When interviewing, it is necessary to take into account such factors as the physical, emotional and mental state of the respondent. The main task of the oral history researcher is not only to get the least subjective source of information about certain event, but also not to harm the interviewee.
Each category of respondents (divided according to different criteria) has its own peculiarities in interviewing. The narrative and survey technique depends on each category individually, which affects the method of evidence gathering.
When interviewing, one should use all possible means and methods for qualitative creation of a narrative, as well as its subsequent transcription and preservation. If the interview is recorded using audio and not video, it does not mean that it is worse. Each type of technical equipment has its advantages and disadvantages, and the quality of the source that will be stored or used in scientific work depends to a large extent on the technical equipment and skills of the scientist.
The correct legal registration of oral history evidence will help to use them in the future with the greatest benefit for science and social and political life. Oral history researchers in the process of collecting memories must strictly adhere to the legal norms of the current legislation, as well as to moral and ethical principles.
Moreover, one should not forget that the respondent is not a historical source; he or she is a living person with his or her own experiences, fears and emotions. Only in this case the creation of oral history sources will result positively.