FEATURES OF THE FUNCTIONING OF GRAMATIC HOMONYMS WHERE AND WHERE TO IN THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE
The functional features of grammatical homonyms such as where and where to in the Ukrainian language have been analyzed. Grammatical homonymy is the result of transposition processes between units of the language system. The criteria for distinguishing homonymous units are semantic, structural, word-building, syntactic, and stylistic parameters. Specified pronoun adverbs largely express spatial semantics in interrogative or exclamative-interrogative syntactic constructions. In the relevant communicative situation, these adverbialisms express undetected and deictic semantics, synonymizing with such lexical units as somewhere, exactly here. Appearing in the role of connecting words, adverbs where and where to join subordinate relative clauses and clauses of place to the main ones. Expressing spatial semantics, the studied adverbs are part of many phraseologisms. In combination with particles such as any, and no they realize the semantics of spatial uncertainty.
It is emphasized that the defining function of particles is a gradual one. The syntagmatic criterion makes it possible to identify the particles where and where to and their equivalents such as wherever, whereabouts, wherein, whereupon, whereon, no way etc., which largely implement the category of negation, representing a variety of verbal subtleties (annoyance, doubt, indignation, categorical denial, impossibility). The complex wherever may express semantics of capture, no way indicates the impossibility of something. The quantitative and emphasizing significance is actualized by the particle where in combination with the comparatives. The studied lexical units express concessive meaning as part of paired conjugations (in combination with the opposing ones): wherever ... but etc. Consequently, semantic-structural, pragmatic and syntagmatic factors determining the relevance of the analyzed words to adverbs, particles, or conjunctions are analyzed.