PRAGMATIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VERBAL PATTERNS OF WISHES IN THE LANGUAGES OF DIFFERENT STRUCTURES
The article deals with comparative analysis of the verbal patterns of wishes as speech acts, including their pragmatic characteristics in English, Ukrainian, Bulgarian and Czech. The grammatical models with positive and negative meaning of the phraseological units are defined as well as their common proposition structure in imperative mood. The verbal patterns of wishes deal with those aspects of context which are formally encoded in the structure of a language. The communicative purpose is in proposal structure of wishes and curses assumes that the hearer will understand the intended effect, the perlocutionary effect. There is explored invisible meaning – how a great deal
of what is unsaid is recognized as part of what is communicated in four languages. The verbal patterns of wishes are defi ned as positive (wishes) and negative (curses) utterances with expressive meaning. Illocutionary act is produced by speaker with a help of performative verb “wish” with direct or indirect intention in English, Ukrainian, Bulgarian and Czech languages. The subject of the proposition is a speaker
or good / evil spirit that makes effect on communicative situation.